By Evaristo H
A PAPER PRESENTED ON THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STATE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONFLICTS: ACTORS AND DYNAMICS IN MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE 27 th august, 2014
This paper assesses land resource in Tanzania in relation to ownership, access and control for livelihoods and development. The ownership of resources and state impacts the community stability and development. The paper employs political ecology approach to analyse the state of art in relation to land resource. In-depth interviews Focus Group Discussions and Literature review were employed to establish historical trend in relation to conflicts and contradictions that exist in resource management.
The paper advances that since 1923 Tanzania has undergone a number of land reforms however, the principles of land tenure have not changed. Tanzanian producers were separated from their means of production. This resulted to conflicts over land which occurs in different forms and scale.
After independence, land was dispossessed in the name of the national/ public interest to establish National Parks, agricultural projects and other projects that did not respond to internal demands. After the failure of the projects such land was not returned to the users.
Moreover, Tanzania has formulated a number of laws to facilitate accumulation. These include commodification of land that raised its demand hence second scramble. About 16 Acts were enacted annually since 1990 to fulfil the demand that cause the rise of the question whose state.
Both Tanzania and Mozambique inherited colonial systems of natural resource management and ownership which continue to inform the current practice.
Tanzania is dominated by the accumulation tendency overtime time in history. The state apparatus are the agents of accumulation. The situation will be tense in future.