ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITIES` COPING MECHANISMS TO GEODISASTERS IN THE VICINITY OF OLDOINYO LENGAI, NORTHERN TANZANIA
By Evaristo H
This study aimed at assessing communities` coping mechanisms to geodisasters in the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania. It employed the access model to explain the occurrence of disasters as a process in holistic way. The study employed documentary search, in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, observation and measurements and semi structured questionnaire for data capture.
It was found out that the local communities had vast knowledge through which disaster risk and vulnerability were understood and classified. It was noted that the disaster is caused by human malpractice against other human beings or God. There were normal eruptions that acted as manure for pastures and pesticides that saved cattle from pests. Abnormal eruption led to loss of human life, injuries and displacement of people internally, death of livestock and wild animals, destruction of pastures, water bodies, pollution and change of the landscape configuration. The communities learnt the processes of Oldoinyo Lengai ecosystem and foresee the disasters. The knowledge was either obtained from the Olaibons who were able to decode the message from God or tales that have been spread and shared from one generation to the other. The intervention measures by the state that included zoning, cessation of Nayobi and provision of rescue and relief laws and orders were not well coordinated, partial and unsustainable. Generally, the communities` coping mechanisms are insufficient with limited access to resources and power that could reduce community vulnerability. It is therefore recommended that government needs to learn the community technology and develop mutual system of coping by establishing appropriate institutions for mitigation and preparedness.
Tathmini ya mbinu zakijamii za kukabiliana na maafa ya kijiolojia katika maeneo ya jirani na Oldoinyo Lengai, kaskazini mwa Tanzania
Na Evaristo H
IKISIRI ya tasnifu
utafiti huu umenuia katika kutathmini mbinu za kijamii za kukabiliana na maafa ya yatokanayo na miamba katika maeneo ya jirani na Oldoinyo Lengai, kaskazini mwa Tanzania. Utafiti huu umetumia kiunzi cha nadharia ya haki ya kutumia rasilimali na kuelezea chanzo cha maafa kwa ujumla wake. Utafiti huu ulitumia data fuatilizi kutoka katika makavazi za jiolojia, picha za satelaiti na maktaba mbalimbali. Umetumia pia data za msingi kwa kupitia majadiliano ya makundi, mahojiano ya kina na dodoso ili kupata uhalisia toka kwa wahusika.
Utafiti umebaini kuwa jamii inauelewa wakutosha juu ya hatari ya maafa na kuweza kuya chambua maafa katika makundi kadhaa. Ilifahamika kuwa maafa husababishwa na mwenendo mbaya wa maisha ya mwanadamu dhidi ya binadamu mwenzake na Mungu (Lengai). Kuna milipuko ya volcano ya kawaida ambayo haileti maafa. Milipuko hii hurutubisha ardhi na huua wadudu wanaoathiri mifugo. Aidha kuna milipuko na matetemeko ambayo huathiri watu na mali. Athari hizo nipamoja na vifo vya watu na wanyama, kujeruhiwa kwa watu na wanyama, kuhabiriwa kwa makazi, malisho, barabara, vyanzo vya maji, shule na zahanati. Uchafuzi wa hewa kwa vumbi na hewa ukaa na kuhama kwa watu ni baadhi ya athari hizo.
Watu wamejifunza maumbile ya ikolojia ya Oldoinyo Lengai na kuweza kubashiri kinachoweza tokea kwao. Elimu hiyo hutambulika kupitia masimulizi ya miaka mingi yaliorithishwa toka kizazi hadi kizazi na kupitia Olaiboni watu wenye nguvu ya kuwasiliana na Mungu na kung`amua alama za maumbile hayo.
Pamoja na yote hayo jamii bado haina uwezo wa kutosha wa kukabiliana na maafa kwakuwa haki yao ya kumiliki na kutumia mali yao kidemokrasia imebinywa. Hawana uhuru juu ya rasilimali zilizopo na kusafiri hasa maeneo ya hifadhi, hawana haki ya kutumia ardhi kadiri ilivyo pasika. Hakuna mfumo wa kisasa wa kuthathmini maafa na kutoa taadhari. Serikali hainabudi kuelewa mbinu za wananchi na kuangalia namna bora ya kuboresha kwa pamoja. Samabamba na hilo taasisi mtambuka za kuweza kusimamia mbinu mijarabu za kuzuia, kupunguza na kujiandaa na maafa ziweke katika jamii husika.
By Evaristo H
A PAPER PRESENTED ON THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STATE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONFLICTS: ACTORS AND DYNAMICS IN MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE 27 th august, 2014
This paper assesses land resource in Tanzania in relation to ownership, access and control for livelihoods and development. The ownership of resources and state impacts the community stability and development. The paper employs political ecology approach to analyse the state of art in relation to land resource. In-depth interviews Focus Group Discussions and Literature review were employed to establish historical trend in relation to conflicts and contradictions that exist in resource management.
The paper advances that since 1923 Tanzania has undergone a number of land reforms however, the principles of land tenure have not changed. Tanzanian producers were separated from their means of production. This resulted to conflicts over land which occurs in different forms and scale.
After independence, land was dispossessed in the name of the national/ public interest to establish National Parks, agricultural projects and other projects that did not respond to internal demands. After the failure of the projects such land was not returned to the users.
Moreover, Tanzania has formulated a number of laws to facilitate accumulation. These include commodification of land that raised its demand hence second scramble. About 16 Acts were enacted annually since 1990 to fulfil the demand that cause the rise of the question whose state.
Both Tanzania and Mozambique inherited colonial systems of natural resource management and ownership which continue to inform the current practice.
Tanzania is dominated by the accumulation tendency overtime time in history. The state apparatus are the agents of accumulation. The situation will be tense in future.